People in Kurdistan speak Kurdish and it is a sub-set of Indo-European languages same as Persian. It has got its special rules in grammar and writing. Kurdish Literature is taught in many universities in Europe and Middle East. This language has got a lot of dialects due to the extent of Kurdish regions. This diversity make the language rich in terms of Kurdish words, rhythm, pronunciation, poetry, literature and music so that many Kurdish poems have been translated into different languages 100 years ago.
In dialects divisions, people in Saghez, Baneh and a part of Marivan speak “Sorani”. People in Sanandaj, Divandareh , a part of Marivan and Kamyaran speak “Ardalani”. People in the east of the province including Ghorveh, Bijar speak “Kalhori” and people in southwest including ancient and green region of Uraman speak “Horami” which is very similar to the language of Avesta, religious texts of Zoroaster.
Kurdistan province is one of the richest provinces in music. Owing to the fact that there a lot of music bands throughout the province, music professors in Tehran and other big cities who are originally from Kurdistan, as well as making musical instruments because of advanced wood industries and delicate works in this province, together with the existence of musical talent make the province to the center of music. Many Kurdish religious music and songs are heard in the music of nations in Middle East because of its influence and rich music. Kurdish music could be divided into three parts: 1. Religious music which is sung in religious ceremonies, for Prophet Mohammad’s birthday and mystical ceremonies of Sufies using Daf and different rhythms. 2. Music of urban regions which is performed by professional musicians. Most of these songs are actually the same “Kurdish Goranies” performed by musical instruments. Gorani is one of the most important forms of Kurdish music. Maqam has a special place in music in Kurdish regions as well and its diversity indicates its development over centuries. 3. Traditional and rural music including songs such as: Bayt, Lawk, Heyran, Siachamanah, Chapla, etc.
Kurdish Dance: (Halparki)
Kurdish dance is called “Halparki”, a beautiful dance, reflecting the past of Kurdish people. It is active and alive and flows into the lives of people. If we observe this art and its reasons, it goes back to the people’s lives, work, such as agriculture, religious beliefs, celebrations, local games, war, defense, mental states. Kurds’ extraversion has had a great effect on their dance so that Kurdish dance expresses people’s inner moods, ideas and it describes the events in the form of Halparki. It is performed as a team work in the form of a circle; the first person has got a piece of cloth in his hand called “Sarchopi”. This cloth is a symbol for the flag of each region and the first person completed and coordinated the group’s movements by shaking and moving this cloth gracefully. Changing the rhythm of the dance and the movements is done by the Sarchopi. Kurds have got a common dance called “Chapi” and other kinds are specific to each region. In all regions it is performed in group and in the form of circle. Sanandaj and Marivan have got the most diversities in dance, thus they have a lot of dance groups. The most important forms of Halparki in Sanandaj are: Garyan, Pshtpa, Halgrtn, Fatah Pashaei, Chapi, Zangi, Shalan, Sejar, Khanamiri.
Kurdish clothes are one of the most beautiful clothes in Iran. This beauty is more evident and prominent in women’s clothes. Long and colorful dresses and their harmony show the beauty. Kurdish clothes have been selected as the most beautiful ones in many world festivals. It is quite suitable for this climate and conditions. People respect it and they wear it now. Kurdish clothes and hand-made Giveh are considered as fine and distinguished kinds of clothes among people. Each region has its own specific kind of clothes so you can identify people’s regions from their clothes. It is worth mention that traditional jewelries make these clothes more beautiful.
Special Ceremonies & Celebrations: (Kurdish Nowroz)
Nowroz is the most common and important celebrations among people in Kurdistan. It is performed in two different times: first, at the beginning of February, which is known as Kurdish Nowroz held in the villages of south region of Uraman especially in Zhaveroud, second one held in the 1st through fifth of March according to the climate in the other villages. The time of attending these celebrations are determined in the website of the general department and by civil organizations inside the villages. Nowroz is performed in different regions of Kurdistan spontaneously accompanied by Kurdish dance and making fires. Eyd Fetr and Eyd Qorban are two important religious celebrations as well as the Prophet Mohammad’s birthday. Meraj and Barat are other two religious celebrations in this region.
Pirshaliar wedding is another ceremony which is important in Kurdistan especially in Uraman. It is held in Uraman Takht village in the second week of February coincides with Sadeh festival, with special rituals. In spring, in the middle of April, a celebration is held in Pirshaliar tomb which is near the village, called Komsay. In order to visit these ceremonies, mant tours are performed throughout the province. Also Nowroz is celebrated at the beginning of February in Uraman region in Diveznaw and Palangan villages and people from other provinces come to visit it. Sufies ceremonies have always been important in terms of social-religious conditions in the province. These ceremonies are held weekly in most of Tekyeh and Khanaghas (a special place for gathering of Sufi brotherhood or Tariqeh) on Thursdays nights, performing Sama’ (mystical dance) and extraordinarily movements.